Infertility is defined as the inability to get pregnant even after frequent sexual intercourse for at least twelve months. Infertility may lie either in male or female infertility or in both. Nearly 10 to 18% of couples are facing fertility issues all over the world. However, many infertile couples able to conceive successfully after trying to get pregnant for two years or more. But some conditions causing infertility need to be treated to get pregnant.

The essential factors to become pregnant.

  • To become pregnant, the important factor is that your ovaries should produce and release an egg, a process called ovulation
  • Your male partner needs to generate healthy sperm. For many couples, this might not be a problem unless the male partner suffers from fertility issues
  • You need to participate in regular unprotected sexual intercourse during your fertile period
  • You need to have healthy and open fallopian tubes and a healthy uterus because the sperm meets the egg in your fallopian tubes.
  • The embryo can develop in a healthy uterus.

To become pregnant, every step in the process of reproduction has to happen correctly. The steps of this process include:

  • One of the two ovaries must release a mature egg
  • The released egg need to be picked up by your fallopian tube
  • Sperm has to swim a long way from the cervix into the fallopian tubes through the uterus to reach and fertilize the egg
  • The fertilized egg needs to travel down to the uterus from the fallopian tube
  • The fertilized egg grows in the uterus

In women, many factors can interrupt this process at any step, especially the uterine factors below can be a major hurdle that leads to infertility. Uterine factor infertility is termed as abnormalities of the uterus causing infertility. The abnormalities related to uterus make it challenging to become pregnant or carry a pregnancy. Common uterine factors that are associated with infertility

Fibroids: Fibroids are non-cancerous tumours. Uterine factors can reduce fertility in several ways and impact the ability to carry a pregnancy; they can change the shape of the cervix, limiting the number of sperm entering the uterus. The abnormal shape of your uterus can alter the movement of the sperm or embryo. They even block your fallopian tubes. If you have fibroids and if you want to start a family talks to a fertility expert about the pros and cons.

Polyps: Polyps are the growth of endometrial tissues which are of two types, uterine polyps and cervical polyps that affect fertility. Uterine polyps are lesions that grow on the uterine wall, and cervical polyps are smooth tissue that grows in the cervix. They can affect the fertilization process or growth of the embryo. Some studies state revealed that removal of the endometrial polyp could increase the chances of conceiving by 63%.

Congenital Abnormalities: Birth defects such as:

  • Uterine septate, it is a condition where the group of tissue separates the uterus
  • Bicornuate uterus, it forms a heart-shaped uterus forming two endometrial cavities
  • Unicornuate uterus, in this condition the uterus is developed abnormally
  • Didelphys, double uterus

Adhesions: This is one of the common causes of infertility that forms around the fallopian tubes or ovaries. These adhesions prevent the embryo from travelling down into the uterus, which results in ectopic or tubal pregnancy. Uterine adhesions or Asherman’s syndrome can cause infertility by blocking implantation. Women with adhesions are at higher risk of infertility, recurrent miscarriages, and ectopic pregnancy.

Cervical issues: Cervical stenosis can affect your fertility, directly and indirectly. If the opening of the cervix is blocked or narrow, then it is difficult for the sperm to travel up in the fallopian tubes. Any prior cervical surgeries, irregular cervical mucus, and the presence of immunizers that kill or hinder sperm can lead to infertility.

Diagnosing the cause of uterine factor infertility

Fertility experts diagnose uterine problems through various diagnostic procedures which include:

  • Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
  • Transvaginal ultrasonography
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Sonohysterography
  • Hysteroscopy
  • Laparoscopy

Evaluating the uterus carefully by a reproductive specialist is necessary in the case of fertility problems. Conditions like polyps or fibroids can be surgically removed to improve fertility. How ever, uterine malformations don’t need surgical correction always. Many women can still conceive even with these disorders. For more information, consult our fertility expert at Angels Fertility Clinic Hyderabad.