The ovaries are a part of the reproductive system of the female. There are two ovaries located in the lower abdomen on each side of the uterus. These ovaries produce eggs that are released during the childbearing years and hormones like estrogen and progesterone.

In some women, a fluid-filled sac will develop on one of these ovaries called a cyst. In many women, at least one cyst will develop in their lifetime. In most cases, cysts go painless and don’t show any symptoms.

Signs & Symptoms Of Ovarian Cysts

Most of the cysts go symptomless and go away on their own. However, some cysts grow large over time, causing problems which include:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Abdominal bloating or swelling
  • Painful bowel movements
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Lower back pain
  • Breast tenderness
  • Hormonal abnormalities
  • Nausea and vomiting

These symptoms might be due to a ruptured cyst or ovarian torsion that severe complications if not treated early.

Causes Of Ovarian Cyst

Most of the ovarian cysts are associated with the menstrual cycle. In some cases, ovarian cysts can occur due to underlying conditions like endometriosis and PCOS. However, there were many other cysts categorised into two types functional cysts and pathological cysts.

Ovarian Cyst

Functional ovarian cysts – It is the most common type of cysts forms as a result of female’s natural menstrual. Often they are harmless and are short-lived.

Eggs are formed in a structure inside the ovary known as a follicle which contains fluid that protects the growth of eggs, and it breaks after releasing the egg. But in some conditions, the follicle doesn’t release egg nor breaks the fluid and gets shrunk. In such cases, the follicle may swell and grow as a cyst.

Functional cysts are benign (non-cancerous) and are harmless. Mostly they will disappear without any treatment in a few months. There are two types of functional cysts.

  • Follicular cyst
  • Corpus luteum cyst

Pathological cysts – they develop due to abnormal cell growth and are not associated with the menstrual cycle. Pathological cysts grow either from the cells that create eggs or the cells covering the ovary. They may burst or grow large forming cysts. Usually, pathological cysts are benign, but sometimes they turn out to be cancerous (malignant) and are removed surgically.

  • Dermoid cysts
  • Cystadenomas
  • Endometriomas

These pathological cysts stop blood flow to the ovaries.

Treatment For Ovarian Cyst

Treatment for cysts depends on various factors like age, the type and size of the cyst, and symptoms. Watchful waiting is a good option as the cysts disappear within a few months. In some cases, medication like birth control pills helps to prevent the development of new cysts. If cysts persist for a long time and increasing in size or causing pain need to be removed surgically.

Laparoscopy and laparotomy are two surgical procedures used to extract ovarian cysts.

Laparotomy: This procedure may be advised if the cyst is cancerous.

Laparoscopy For An Ovarian Cyst

Today, surgical procedures have become more conservative and less invasive; henceforth, a laparoscopic surgery an ovarian cyst has become a golden standard. The employment of laparoscopy for removing ovarian cysts has become popular though it is challenging in case of large cysts.

In this procedure, a small incision is made below the navel to insert a laparoscope.

The tube will be thin with a camera head which allows the doctor to view the organs on a monitor. Sometimes carbon dioxide gas is pumped into your abdomen for a better view of organs. This laparoscope helps to locate the cyst, and when it is found, minor incisions will be made for inserting surgical instruments to remove the cyst.

Tissue samples are sent to the lab for testing. If it is cancerous, then both ovaries and uterus might be removed. After removing the cyst, the incisions are closed with stitches or staples. An ovarian cyst is removed by preserving the ovaries and your fertility. But, there is a possibility of forming new cyst on the same or opposite ovary after laparoscopic cystectomy.

Recovery After Laparoscopic Ovarian Cystectomy

The recovery time varies for everyone after surgery based on health conditions. After the surgery, you might feel pain in your tummy, which goes away in a few days. After a laparoscopy cystectomy, it may take 6 – 12 weeks to resume to normal activities which depend on various factors.

Contact your surgeon if you notice below symptoms during recovery:

  • Bleeding heavily
  • Severe pain or swelling in the abdominal region
  • High fever
  • Dark and smelly vaginal discharge

These symptoms mentioned above might be a sign of infection. For more information like the cost of laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy or having any other fertility issues consult our experts at Angels Fertility Clinic. We offer quality treatment at affordable prices.