Azoospermia is a condition where men do not have sperm in their semen after ejaculation. This condition is very uncommon and affects one out of 100 men. Though it is rare, it is a severe infertility problem in men. If your partner has this condition, your chances of conceiving naturally are difficult. The treatment for azoospermia is based on its cause and the ability of the female’s fertility.

What are the Types and Causes of Azoospermia?

There are three main types of azoospermia and each type has its own causes:

Pre-testicular azoospermia: It is a rare type and the testicles are normal. However, testicles cannot produce sperm and it can be due to low levels of hormones or can occur after chemotherapy. Certain genetic disorders such as Kallmann syndrome can affect sperm production. The use of certain medications or radiation treatment for cancer treatment can also cause this type of azoospermia. Along with this, damage to pituitary glands and the hypothalamus can also be a cause.

Testicular azoospermia: In this type, testicles cannot produce sperm due to any damage to the testicles. The possible causes include:

  • Epididymitis and urethritis that cause infection in the reproductive tract
  • Viral orchitis, a childhood illness where one or both the testicles swell
  • Certain genetic conditions such as Klinefelter’s syndrome
  • Treatment of cancer
  • An injury to the groin
  • Allergic reactions to certain medications
  • Tumors
  • Diabetes

Post-testicular azoospermia: 40% of azoospermia is post-testicular azoospermia and it is due to ejaculation dysfunction or due to a blockage. In this case, testicles produce sperms but cannot let them get out due to some underlying causes.

The causes of this type are:

  • Absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) ducts that carry sperm from the testes
  • Infections such as cysts, vasectomy, or an injury
  • Retrograde ejaculation, where sperm and semen flow back into the bladder instead of coming out
  • Any blockage in the tubes that carry sperm to the penis from the testicles

What are the Signs of Azoospermia?

Azoospermia is the lack of sperm and does not show any particular signs other than the inability to conceive after having unprotected sex for more than one year. However certain causes of azoospermia can show the following signs:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain during urination
  • Difficulty with ejaculation
  • Enlargement of breasts
  • Less desire for sexual intercourse
  • Reduced hair growth on the face and body
  • Discomfort, swelling, or lumps near testicles
  • Loss of muscle
  • The smaller size of the penis than normal
  • Small testicles

Diagnosis and Treatment of Azoospermia

The doctor will ask you to ejaculate in a cup to collect the semen and it will be sent to a lab for analysis. If the semen analysis shows that there is no sperm, the doctor might repeat the test after a few months. If the second test also shows an absence of sperm, it indicates azoospermia. Then the doctor tries to know its cause. 

The doctor will also conduct a physical examination, and asks about your medical history. The doctor may also test your blood sample to know the hormone levels. The doctor may also conduct other tests such as karyotype testing, Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and testicular biopsy.

The treatment is based on the cause and type of azoospermia. The treatment is also based on the ability of a female’s fertility. If the problem is caused by an infection, it should be treated before considering other treatment options.

Other treatment options include:

  • Surgery to repair the blocked tubes
  • Hormone treatment such as medications if the cause is low hormone production
  • Stopping the use of medications that can lead to azoospermia 
  • If the male partner does not want to undergo surgery to clear the blockage, sperm can be retrieved from the testicles and can be further used for IVF

Is it Possible to Get Pregnant with Azoospermia?

The answer is a big yes. Even if your partner has azoospermia, you can still become pregnant using assisted reproductive techniques (ART) such as IVF, IUI, ICSI, etc.

Looking for a Solution? Visit Angels Fertility Today

Angels Fertility Center has been treating both infertile men and women for several years in Hyderabad. We can treat various types of infertility problems including azoospermia. We use the latest tools and technology to ensure the safety of our patients. We carefully evaluate you before determining the right treatment solution. We have performed hundreds of assisted reproductive treatments and helped couples have a child. To discuss your condition, call us and schedule your appointment today.