Ovaries are the female reproductive parts located in the lower abdomen. Women have two ovaries resided on either side of the uterus that produces eggs and the hormones estrogen & progesterone.

The eggs are developed in a sac during the menstrual cycle called a follicle. This fluid-filled sac is located inside the ovaries. The egg is released by breaking this follicle or sac in general. But if the sac doesn’t break open to release the egg or the sac doesn’t go away after releasing the egg, the follicle grows larger forming a cyst inside the ovary or on the surface of the ovary.

Types Of Ovarian Cysts:

Functional cysts are the most common ovarian cysts. Usually, they not vulnerable and often don’t cause any discomfort. But in case of a non-functional ovarian cyst, it is different as they are complex ovarian cyst and causes severe discomfort.

Functional cysts: A functional ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of an ovary during or after ovulation. The sac holds the maturing egg, and usually, it goes away after releasing the egg. If the egg is not released or if the sac doesn’t go away after the egg is released, the sac fills up with fluid and start to swell. This is termed as a functional cyst, and they are of two types:

  • If the egg is not released even after maturing during ovulation and keep on growing, it is termed as Follicular cyst.
  • If the follicle cyst doesn’t dissolve even after releasing the egg and grows bigger, then it is termed as Corpus luteum cysts.

In most cases, functional cysts don’t cause any trouble for women and often disappear within two to three menstrual cycles on their own.

Other types of ovarian cysts

The ovarian cysts types are not associated with the normal function of your menstrual cycle. Some other cysts are as follows:

Dermoid cysts: It also termed as teratomas, they are the sac-like structure that contains hair, skin or other tissues because they developed from embryonic cells. Rarely they’re cancerous too.

Cystadenomas: These type of cysts are developed on your ovarian surface and may be filled with watery or mucous substance.

Endometriomas: It is also called endometriosis in which uterine endometrial cells develop outside the uterus. Some tissues might attach to your ovaries and grow larger.

Some women like to develop polycystic ovary syndrome. This is a condition where a large number of small cysts formed in the ovaries. It can enlarge your ovaries. If the condition is not treated, it might cause infertility.

Signs and Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts

Most of the times, ovarian cysts go symptomless. However, some symptoms in severe cases as they cyst grow lager. The signs & symptoms might include:

  • Pain during sexual intercourse or menstruation
  • Unusual bleeding
  • Breast tenderness
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Painful bowel movements & unable to empty the bladder completely
  • Pelvic pain before or during the menstrual cycle
  • Lower back pain
  • Pain in thighs
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weight gain

In case of severe symptoms, it requires immediate medical attention:

  • sharp pelvic pain
  • Fever
  • Dizziness
  • Breathing problems(Rapid breathing)
  • Abdominal pain with vomiting and fever

The above symptoms indicate a ruptured ovarian cyst. Complications can be severe if not treated early.

Treatment For Ovarian Cyst

The treatment for ovarian cysts depends on your age, type & size of the cyst, and other symptoms. The treatment intends to shrink the cyst or to remove it surgically.

Watchful waiting: Ovarian cyst subsides over time within a few months(2 to 3 menstrual cycles) in most of the cases. This is typically an option when the condition has no symptoms but shows a small fluid-filled cyst in an ultrasound test. Some doctors recommend you wait and get regular pelvic ultrasounds to monitor the changes of the cyst.

Medication: You might be recommended to take oral contraceptives like birth control pills, to prevent ovarian recurrent ovarian cysts. However, birth control pills can’t shrink the existing cyst but can prevent forming new cysts.

Surgery For Ovarian Cyst:

Removing the cyst is suggest when it is increasing in size, causes pain or any other discomfort. The surgical procedures include:

Laparoscopy For Ovarian Cyst: If your ovarian cyst is small, your doctor suggests performing laparoscopy to remove the cyst. The procedure involves making a small incision near your navel and inserts a small laparoscopic tube instrument to remove the cyst.

Laparotomy For Ovarian Cyst: If your ovarian cyst is large, your doctor likely recommends laparotomy to remove the cyst. The procedure involves making a large incision in your abdomen and remove the cyst.

If the ovarian cyst is found to be cancerous, your doctor will remove your uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes and the procedure is called a hysterectomy. If the ovarian cyst left untreated, they could decrease your fertility levels. This is common with endometriosis and PCOS. To improve your fertility, you should consult a fertility doctor for further treatment. For more detailed information or suffering from ovarian cyst problem consult our fertility experts at Angels Fertility Clinic in Hyderabad.